Monday, 1 May 2006

Kurral (Tirukkural in Latin)

Tirukkural in Latin
இலத்தின மொழியில் திருக்குறள்

Translated by: Beschi, C.J. (1730)
Published in
The Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar
By G.U. Pope in 1886, Henry Frowde, London

       Latin was the first European language into which the Kural was translated. Father C.J. Beschi of the Society of Jesus (1700-1742) translated the first two books of the Kural (Virtue and Wealth) and Reverend G.U. Pope edited this only manuscript found in the India Office Library, London and published it as ‘notes’ at the end of his famous English translation “The Sacred Kurral” in 1886. Thanks to Pope for doing so, for otherwise the manuscript would have been lost in the oblivion. There are at least two more translations of the Kural into Latin (either in full or in parts). Dr. Karl Graul in 1856 published the Kural in German and selected couplets in Latin. In 1865, an unknown author translated the Kural into Latin (Tiruvalluvar Kural Versione Lationa).
       Latin is a classical language of the ancient Rome and is no longer a spoken language. However, amongst linguists it enjoys the same status as Sanskrit in India. Italian, Spanish and Portuguese have evolved from Latin, but I am aware of only a translation in Italian language. The Kural must have been translated into Spanish and Portuguese as well.
       The translation presented here is that of Father Beschi Joseph, taken from G.U. Pope’s book “The Sacred Kurral of Tiruvalluva Nayanar”. My son N.V. Junaid took the responsibility of typesetting the entire translation. Any language that employs either Roman or Devnagiri script is ideed easy to handle. 
       No translation can reflect the true nature of the Kural. Added to this inherent difficulty is the attempt of some scholars to either read their own ideas into the Kural or deliberately misinterpret the message to make it conform to their preconceived notions. Father Beshi, whose translation has been presented here, contains many such mistranslations. V. Ramasamy writes: "Beschi is purposely distorting the message of the original when he renders பிறவாழி as ‘the sea of miserable life’ and the phrase பிறவிப்பெருங்கடல் as ‘sea of this birth’ which has been translated by others as ‘the sea of many births’. Beschi means thus ‘those who swim the vast sea of miseries’. The concept of rebirth or many births for the same soul is contrary to Christian principle and belief"

~ Contents ~

Division 1: Virtue

From chapters 001 to 010
1. (No title listed)
2. (No title listed)
3. (No title listed)
4. (No title listed)
5. (No title listed)
6. (No title listed)
7. (No title listed)
8. (No title listed)
9. Hospitalitas
10. Affabilitas
From chapters 011 to 020
11. Grati animi virtus
12. Equitus
13. Sensuum fraenatio
14. Bene moratum esse
15. Alienam uxorem
16. Patientia
17. Invidiâ non Affici
18. Non inhiare alienis bonis
19. Non detrahere
20. Otiosa verba non loqui
From chapters 021 to 030
21. Peccati metus
22. (No title listed)
23. Eleemosinae largitio
24. Laudabiliter vivere
25. Virtutes religiosorum
26. Abstinentia carnibus
27. Poenitentia
28. Hipocrisis
29. Nullum defraudare
30. Oris integritas
From chapters 031 to 038
31. Non irasci
32. Nemini malefacere
33. Non occidere
34. Mundanarum rerum ..
35. Omnibus mundanis .....
36. Verum assequi conari
37. A sensibilibus ipsa ....
38. Divinorum decretorum ..

Division 2: Wealth
From chapters 039 to 050
39. Regis magnitado
40. Scientia sui muneris regi.
41. Ignorantia ......
42. Doctos inter homines
43. Prudentia
44. Vilia abigere
45. Magnos sibi viros ...
46. Ab eorum infimae ...
47. Non nisi post maturam ..
48. Saam cum hostis ....
49. Facinori aggrediendo ....
50. In proelio locum sibi ...
From chapters 051 to 060
51. In ministrorum .....
52. Quomodo debeat rex eos
53. Consanguineas complecti
54. Non esse in regimine
55. Recti sceptri conditio
56. Sceptri tortuositas
57. Subditos non terrificare
58. Clementia
59. Exploratoris officinum
60. Animositas
From chapters 061 to 070
61. Solertia
62. Assidué laborare
63. In adversis non turbari
64. De ministro regis
65. Verborum officacia
66. Puritas actionum
67. Firmitas in agenda
68. Modus agendi
69. Legati officium
70. Quomodo legatus ...
From chapters 071 to 080
71. Regis intentum percipere
72. Auditorium discernere
73. Coetum non timere
74. Ditio, seu regnum
75. Arces
76. Modus aerarium ....
77. Quae possidere debet
78. Spiritus martialis
79. Amicitia
80. Quocum amicitiam ineas
From chapters 081 to 090
81. Ab antiquo tempore ..
82. Dammosa amicitia
83. Amicitia simulata
84. Insipientia
85. Inscitia
86. Animi aversio vel ....
87. Odium prudens
88. Juxta hostium diversitatem ....
89. Inimicitia occulta
90. Magnos viros ......
From chapters 091 to 100
91. Non sinere se ab uxore ..
92. Mulier quae in suo .....
93. Abstinere ab inebriantibus
94. Ludus
95. Medicina
96. Prosapiae nobilitas
97. Honoris tenacitas
98. (Vera) magnitudo
99. Omnes probitatis conditiones
100. Bona indoles
From chapters 101 to 108
101. Avaritia
102. Erubescentia
103. Modus familiam exaltandi
104. Agricultura
105. Paupertas
106. Mendicatio
107. Mendicatio vitanda
108. Vilium hominum conditio

Division 3: Love
Father Beschi did not translate the third division "Love".

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